Research into Propolis
Propolis has been used as a medicine since time immemorial. The Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, the ancient Hebrews, and the Romans all used propolis to treat a variety of diseases.
The Pioneers of Eastern Europe
But it was the mainly the eastern European countries – USSR, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia , Poland, Georgia, Yugoslavia, and others who took up the challenge of exploring propolis from a modern scientific perspective and we must remain forever grateful for those researchers who pioneered the use of propolis in modern medicine. In 1975 the Kazan Veterinary Institute in Russia found that propolis in combination with the antibiotics of the time improved their effectiveness by between 10 and 100 times. This research is now being successfully repeated in the UK. 45 years later!
Research in the ‘West’
Scientific interest in the ‘West” did not really begin until the 1990’s but since then it has slowly grown from a trickle of scientific papers to a flood in recent years covering a very wide range of subjects.
Perhaps the most important feature of this diverse and complex substance is its role as a foundation for the honeybee colony’s immune defence system as well as the support it clearly can provide to the human immune system.
Not just and ANTI
But propolis in human medicine is not a simple anti – drug ( antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal etc ) but more a pro – medicine able to support the human immune system to fight bacteria, inflammation, fungi and viruses.
Remembering the Honeybee
One thing we must all bear in mind as propolis steps onto the stage as a serious medical support for our ailing immune system, is that it is produced primarily by the honeybee for the honeybee. Research into sustainable beekeeping and sustainable sourcing must become a priority otherwise we may lose something that many believe can provide serious support for human beings at a time of great need.
Directory of Research.
The IPRG would like to build a directory of members’ research. If you would like to send us your list of research publications – articles, presentations, videos, books etc. we will publish them here for other members and in the long run provide an appropriate search mechanism.
As a beginning we are publishing Professor Vassya Bankova’s truly remarkable list of publications focussing on the complex chemistry of propolis.
Her work can be found here.
Form an Interest Group – Join HIVECHAT
Coming soon ( before our May 2021 conference ) we will be launching HIVECHAT which will give you the opportunity to talk directly to other researchers, set up meetings, including webinars, forums , chats and share your interests . Through HIVECHAT we will be running regular follow up Research Webinars after the May conference.
- Rofaidi, M. A.; Alotaibi, A.; Alqarni, A.; Alghamdi, A.; Fearnley, J.; Watson, D. G., A Preliminary Study of the Absorption and Metabolism of Temperate Propolis by Human Subjects. Journal of Food and Nutrition Metabolism 2020.
- Alanazi, S.; Alenzi, N.; Fearnley, J.; Harnett, W.; Watson, D., Temperate Propolis Has Anti-inflammatory Effects and Is a Potent Inhibitor of Nitric Oxide Formation in Macrophages. 2020.
- Siheri, W.; Ebiloma, G. U.; Igoli, J. O.; Gray, A. I.; Biddau, M.; Akrachalanont, P.; Alenezi, S.; Alwashih, M. A.; Edrada-Ebel, R.; Muller, S., Isolation of a novel flavanonol and an alkylresorcinol with highly potent anti-trypanosomal activity from Libyan propolis. Molecules 2019, 24, (6), 1041.
- Alqarni, A. M.; Niwasabutra, K.; Sahlan, M.; Fearnley, H.; Fearnley, J.; Ferro, V. A.; Watson, D. G., Propolis exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells via inhibition of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Metabolites 2019, 9, (4), 75.
- Alotaibi, A.; Ebiloma, G. U.; Williams, R.; Alenezi, S.; Donachie, A.-M.; Guillaume, S.; Igoli, J. O.; Fearnley, J.; De Koning, H. P.; Watson, D. G., European propolis is highly active against trypanosomatids including Crithidia fasciculata. Scientific reports 2019, 9, (1), 1-10.
- Omar, R.; Igoli, J. O.; Zhang, T.; Gray, A. I.; Ebiloma, G. U.; Clements, C. J.; Fearnley, J.; Ebel, R. E.; Paget, T.; De Koning, H. P., The chemical characterization of Nigerian propolis samples and their activity against Trypanosoma brucei. Scientific reports 2017, 7, (1), 1-10.
- Siheri, W.; Zhang, T.; Ebiloma, G. U.; Biddau, M.; Woods, N.; Hussain, M. Y.; Clements, C. J.; Fearnley, J.; Ebel, R. E.; Paget, T., Chemical and antimicrobial profiling of propolis from different regions within Libya. PLoS One 2016, 11, (5), e0155355.
- Omar, R. M.; Igoli, J.; Gray, A. I.; Ebiloma, G. U.; Clements, C.; Fearnley, J.; Edrada Ebel, R. A.; Zhang, T.; De Koning, H. P.; Watson, D. G., Chemical characterisation of Nigerian red propolis and its biological activity against Trypanosoma brucei. Phytochemical Analysis 2016, 27, (2), 107-115.
- K. Saleh , T. Z., J. Fearnley; Watson, D. G., A Comparison of the Constituents of Propolis from Different Regions of the United Kingdom by Liquid Chromatography-high Resolution Mass Spectrometry Using a Metabolomics Approach. Current Metabolomics 2015, 5, 42-53.
- Zhang, T.; Omar, R.; Siheri, W.; Al Mutairi, S.; Clements, C.; Fearnley, J.; Edrada-Ebel, R.; Watson, D., Chromatographic analysis with different detectors in the chemical characterisation and dereplication of African propolis. Talanta 2014, 120, 181-190.
- Siheri, W.; Igoli, J. O.; Gray, A. I.; Nasciemento, T. G.; Zhang, T.; Fearnley, J.; Clements, C. J.; Carter, K. C.; Carruthers, J.; Edrada‐Ebel, R., The isolation of antiprotozoal compounds from Libyan propolis. Phytotherapy research 2014, 28, (12), 1756-1760.
- Kardar, M.; Zhang, T.; Coxon, G.; Watson, D.; Fearnley, J.; Seidel, V., Characterisation of triterpenes and new phenolic lipids in Cameroonian propolis. Phytochemistry 2014, 106, 156-163.
- 13. Almutairi, S.; Edrada-Ebel, R.; Fearnley, J.; Igoli, J. O.; Alotaibi, W.; Clements, C. J.; Gray, A. I.; Watson, D. G., Isolation of diterpenes and flavonoids from a new type of propolis from Saudi Arabia. Phytochemistry letters 2014, 10, 160-163.
- Almutairi, S.; Eapen, B.; Chundi, S. M.; Akhalil, A.; Siheri, W.; Clements, C.; Fearnley, J.; Watson, D. G.; Edrada-Ebel, R., New anti-trypanosomal active prenylated compounds from African propolis. Phytochemistry Letters 2014, 10, 35-39.
- Raghukumar, R.; Vali, L.; Watson, D.; Fearnley, J.; Seidel, V., Antimethicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of ‘pacific propolis’ and isolated prenylflavanones. Phytotherapy research 2010, 24, (8), 1181-1187.
- Seidel, V.; Peyfoon, E.; Watson, D. G.; Fearnley, J., Comparative study of the antibacterial activity of propolis from different geographical and climatic zones. Phytotherapy Research 2008, 22, (9), 1256-1263.
- Watson, D.; Peyfoon, E.; Zheng, L.; Lu, D.; Seidel, V.; Johnston, B.; Parkinson, J.; Fearnley, J., Application of principal components analysis to 1H‐NMR data obtained from propolis samples of different geographical origin. Phytochemical Analysis: An International Journal of Plant Chemical and Biochemical Techniques 2006, 17, (5), 323-331.